Emergenz. Chaostheorie, Management, BWL, Ökonomie, Führung, Leadership, Nichtlinearität | Ghostwriter-24, Ghostwriter, Akademischer Ghostwriter, Akademisches Ghostwriting

BWL: Management und Emergenz

In den letzten Jahren sind eine Reihe von Managementmodellen und neuen Führungstheorien aufgekommen, die die nicht-Linearität von Handlung und Handlungsbeziehungen innerhalb von Unternehmen betonen und daraus die Notwendigkeit ableiten, z.B. Führung reaktiv zu gestalten und auf das Setzen von Randbedingungen zu reduzieren. Die entsprechenden Lehren beziehen sich auf Forschung aus dem Bereich der Chaostheorie und des Konstruktivismus und bemühen dabei insbesondere das Konzept der Emergenz, jedoch nicht immer im Sinne des Erfinders, wie ein Blick auf die Beschreibung des Zusammenhangs zwischen Emergenz und Nichtlinearität zeigt, wie sie John H. Holland vornimmt:

quote“Before the advent of programmed computers, we could only study models with large numbers of agents by assuming that the individual agents exhibit a typical or ‘average’ behavior. The overall behavior was seen as the sum of these average behaviors. An analysis of the summed behaviors often provides useful information about multiagent systems: the method of statistical mechanis in physics (see Feynman et al., 1984) and the use of matrix methods to study ecosystem interactions (see May, 1973) provide, convincing examples. However, as I have pointed out, this averaging has limitations. The behavior of an ant colony is not the simple sum of the behaviors of a group of average ants. The coupled interactions of the ants provide a coherence to the nest that far exceeds anything predictable in terms of simple summations.

Emergence is above all a product of coupled, context-dependent interactions. Technically these interactions, and the resulting system, are nonlinear. The behavior of the overall system cannot be obtained by summing the behaviors of its constituent parts. We can no more truly understand strategies of its pieces than we can understand the behavior of an ant colony in terms of averages. Under these conditions, the whole is indeed more than the sum of its parts. However, we can reduce the behavior of the whole to the lawful behavior of its parts, if we take the nonlinear interactions into account” (Holland, Emergence. From Chaos to Order, pp.121-122).